Basic English Grammar! Quick Reference!!

Nouns – a noun is the name of a person, animal, place or thing.

Number (singular / Plural) – A noun which means ‘only one’ is singular, A noun which means ‘more than one’ is Plural

Articles (a / an) – h silent in vowels

Gender (Masculine / Feminine) e.g. actor actress, man woman

Pronouns – the words used in the place of nouns are called pronouns. E.g. I, you, he, she, it, my, your, his, her, its, we, you, they, our, your, their

Verbs – The doing words express an action, which says what persons or animals or machines do or did, e.g. fly, playing, dancing etc.,

Adjectives – The describing words are called adjectives, they are noun helpers. e.g. Ooty is a town. It is a beautiful town.

Adverbs – An adverb tells, how a thing is done, or when a thing is done, or where the thing is done. e.g. How does Radha eat? Quickly.

Prepositions – A perposition is placed before a noun or a pronoun. It relates a noun or a pronoun with some other words in a sentence. e.g. Tha ball is on the table, Ramu is standing behind Somu.

Conjunctions – The words which join two words or two sentences are called conjunctions. e.g. Geetha and Hema are sisters.

Sentences (Subject and Predicate parts) e.g. Mohan is my friend. The first part is the subject. It is a person or a thing which we tell something about. The second part is the predicate. It is what we tell about the subject

Affirmative and Negative – A sentence without no, not or never is called an affirmative sentence, and a sentence with no, not or never is called a negative sentence. E.g. I am a weak boy. I am not a weak boy.

Interrogative sentences – The questions begin with what, which, who, whose, when, where, how etc., these words are question words. e.g. What is this? this is a book.

Imperative Sentences – are the sentences which contains a command or requests. E.g Clean the board (command), please clean the board. Will you please clean the board? (requests)

PUNCTUATIONS

This guide provides instruction on the basic rules of using a period, comma, colon, semicolon, question mark and exclamation point. Each type of punctuation is followed by an explanation and example sentences for reference purposes.

Period

Use a period to end a complete sentence. A sentence is a group of words containing a subject and predicate. In British English a period is called a ‘full stop’.

He went to Detroit last week.
They are going to visit.

Comma

There are a number of different uses for commas in English. Commas are used to:

Separate a list of items. This is one of the most common uses of a comma. Notice that a comma is included before the conjunction ‘and’ which comes before the final element of a list.
Examples:

I like reading, listening to music, taking long walks, and visiting with my friends.
They would like books, magazines, DVDs, video cassettes, and other learning materials for their library.

Separate phrases (clauses). This is especially true after a beginning dependent clause or a long prepositional phrase.
Examples:

In order to qualify for your certificate, you will need to take the TOEFL exam.
Although he wanted to come, he wasn’t able to attend the course.

Separate two independent clauses that are connected by a conjunction such as ‘but’.
Examples:

They wanted to purchase a new car, but their financial situation would not allow it.
I’d really enjoy seeing a film this evening, and I’d like to go out for a drink.

Introduce a direct quote (as opposed to indirect speech i.e. He said he wanted to come …).
Examples:

The boy said, “My father is often away during the week on business trips.”
His doctor replied, “If you don’t stop smoking, you run the risk of a heart attack.”

Separate appositives (a noun, or noun phrase) or non-defining relative clauses.
Examples:

Bill Gates, the richest man in the world, comes from Seattle.
My only sister, who is a fantastic tennis player, is in great shape.

Question Mark

The question mark is used at the end of a question.

Examples:

Where do you live?
How long have they been studying?

Exclamation Point

The exclamation point is used at the end of a sentence to indicate great surprise. It is also used for emphasis when making a point. Be careful not to use an exclamation point too often.

Examples:

That ride was fantastic!
I can’t believe he is going to marry her!

Semicolon

There are two uses for a semicolon:

To separate two independent clauses. One or both of the clauses are short and the ideas expressed are usually very similar.
Examples:

He loves studying; He can’t get enough of school.
What an incredible situation; it must make you nervous.

To separate groups of words that are themselves separated by commas.
Examples:

I took a holiday and played golf, which I love; read a lot, which I needed to do; and slept late, which I hadn’t done for quite a while.
They plan to study German, for their travels; chemistry, for their work; and literature, for their own enjoyment.

Colon

A colon can be used for two purposes:

To provide additional details and explanation.

Examples:

He had many reasons for joining the club: to get in shape, to make new friends, to lose some weight, and to get out of the house.
She gave notice for the following reasons: bad pay, horrible hours, poor relations with colleagues, and her boss.

To introduce a direct quote (a comma can also be used in this situation).
Examples:

He announced to his friends: “I’m getting married!”
She cried out: “I never want to see you again!”

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